Ocean Immersion in a Land-locked Town: Creating a Mini Cashes Ledge

The quiet hum of the chiller and protein skimmer can be heard in the halls of Hanover High School in Hanover, New Hampshire, as a large 100-gallon “Educational Aquatic Ecosystem” sits near the windows of the large cafeteria in the middle of the building. The tank’s glass bears the unmistakable green tinge of a new phytoplankton bloom. On a submerged rock, a barnacle colony is happily feeding for the first time in weeks. Thanks to an enterprising senior, Hanover High School, perched on the border between New Hampshire and Vermont, has become home to its own tiny marine ecosystem.

Step aside, model volcano – Alex Taylor and Hanover High School are taking science projects to the next level.

Spurred by his lifelong passion for the ocean, Alex, with support from a few teachers, the Ecosystems Management Club, and a grant from a local community organization, spearheaded the establishment of a fully functioning aquarium system that mimics the conditions of Cashes Ledge, a biological hotspot in the heart of the Gulf of Maine.

The group was able to build “an unusual learning model . . . that has become a classroom” remarks Scott Stokoe, the Sustainability Curriculum Coordinator for the school, who helped Alex set up the system over the course of a semester.

The ecosystem is now well established after several months of intense research and communication with local experts. The setup also boasts a “closed loop” system: Rather than constantly feeding the marine life and periodically cleaning its waste by hand, the closed loop system aims to represent how material and energy flows in an ecosystem, with conditions similar to Cashes Ledge.

Why Cashes Ledge?

Cashes Ledge, an area approximately 80 miles off the coast of New Hampshire, is a unique and powerful resource for researchers, educators, and tourists. Called the “Yellowstone of the North Atlantic” by renowned oceanographer Dr. Sylvia Earle, this massive underwater mountain range is home to some of the most iconic and unique marine species in the Atlantic.

Kelp up close! The display contains marine wildlife actually found at Cashes Ledge.
Kelp up close! The display contains marine wildlife actually found at Cashes Ledge.

The fabled Atlantic Cod can be seen swimming alongside blue and basking sharks against a backdrop of the Atlantic’s largest and deepest cold-water kelp forest. This rich biodiversity is mirrored in the Educational Aquatic Ecosystem, albeit on a much smaller scale.

While Cashes Ledge is not easily accessible for most people – especially for students who live on the New Hampshire-Vermont border – the miniature ecosystem is an easy way for the students to gain a firsthand appreciation for the unique and dynamic organisms that call Cashes Ledge home.

Alex, Scott Stokoe, and science teacher Jeannie Kornfeld hope that with improved ecological literacy that comes with studying an area that is part of New Hampshire’s history and current affairs, the project will encourage students to engage more deeply with environmental issues. For example, by studying this system in French class, students learned about the economic and historical value of cod and its impact on French culture while studying the language. By gaining exposure to this incredible educational resource, students in a wide range of classes have grown interested in what their region’s ocean has to offer.

Stokoe points to this project as an excellent example of the transdisciplinary application of ecological literacy that is called for by Environmental Studies professor David Orr. Kornfeld, the science teacher who assisted Alex with the tank, agrees, saying that the “vision is to get people using the system as part of an effort to teach sustainability across curricula.”

Already, this vision is becoming a reality. More than 200 students worked with the system in various classes this past spring; students can also learn more about it through the ecosystems management club.

Conservation Law Foundation has been advocating for many years for permanent protection of special areas like Cashes Ledge, including our current push for President Obama to designate it as a Marine National Monument.

We hope that Cashes Ledge is kept intact for generations to come, so that students and educators like the ones at Hanover High School can continue to engage with a local ecosystem and become involved and informed New England ocean lovers.

Take Action to permanently protect Cashes Ledge today.

 

How to Tag a Great White Shark

With the help of over 50 researchers from more than 20 institutions, the non-profit Ocearch has tagged and tracked sharks around the world, from South Africa to the Galapagos. In September 2012, this research mission came to New England for the first time when the great white shark dubbed “Genie” was tagged off of Chatham in Cape Cod, MA.

What does it take to wrangle one of the fiercest apex predators in the ocean? After hours of preparation, sport fishermen and scientists from Ocearch set out each day on the repurposed crab vessel M/V Ocearch, a boat about the same size as the sharks they’re searching for, and use chum to attract sharks while they scan the ocean surface.

Once sighted, a shark is baited and hooked, guided towards the Ocearch vessel, and hauled out of the water using a custom lift capable of supporting thousands of pounds in weight (great whites can weigh over 5,000 lbs).  The Ocearch captain jumps into the water and onto the platform with the shark and uses the shark’s tail helps to guide it onto the lift.

When the team pulled Genie on board and the water around her receded, her anxiety visibly increased, so Ocearch Captain Brett McBride threw a wet towel over her eyes. As she began to calm down, the Captain was able to remove the hook from her mouth and insert two hoses to cascade water over her gills. At this point the rest of the crew jumped onto the platform, sporting jeans and long-sleeve shirts, and began to take a series of measurements and tag Genie. Named for “the shark lady” Eugenie Clark, Genie measured at 14 feet, 8 inches and 2,292 pounds.

Using a power drill, Genie’s dorsal fin was fitted with a satellite tag, an accelerometer and an acoustic tag. Other researches collected blood and tissue samples to study back in the lab. Genie was out of the water for approximately 15 minutes before she was guided back into the ocean and the tracking began. 10 hours later, the accelerometer detached from Genie, floated to the surface and transmitted data regarding her swimming pattern and movements. Whenever Genie’s dorsal fin breaks the surface, her tracker transmits a signal to a satellite overhead, which produces an estimated geographical location for the shark. Where is Genie now? Enjoying herself on Virginia Beach, VA.

As of this summer, the “shark wranglers” working for Ocearch have successfully tagged well over 50 great white sharks around the globe. By tracking sharks like Genie, researchers are hoping to build an understanding of their migratory patterns, breeding grounds, birthing sites, feeding areas and general white shark behavior. This information will help protect some very important animals—great whites are apex predators, which means a healthy population is crucial to maintaining the balance of ocean food webs and ecosystems.

Image via Mass EEA